Análise de custo-efetividade das medidas para prevenção e controle de infecções por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à oxacilina em unidade de terapia intensiva

Análise de custo-efetividade das medidas para prevenção e controle de infecções por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à oxacilina em unidade de terapia intensiva

Título alternativo Analysis the cost-effectiviness of an intervention to prevent infection caused by ORSA at intensive care unit
Autor Freitas, Marise Reis de Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Orientador Castelo Filho, Adauto Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Instituição Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Pós-graduação Infectologia – São Paulo
Resumo O Staphylococcus aureus resistente a oxacilina (ORSA) e um dos principais agentes das infeccoes hospitalares em nosso meio. No Hospital São Paulo o ORSA e endemico, representando cerca de 65 por cento das cepas de S. aureus isoladas, ocasionando morbidade, mortalidade e custos consideraveis. O controle da disseminacao dessa bacteria nos hospitais exige a adocao de medidas especificas. Este estudo teve como objetivo medir o custo-efetividade de uma intervencao para prevenir a ocorrencia de infeccoes por ORSA na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) da disciplina de anestesiologia do Hospital São Paulo. A intervencao consistiu de um pacote de medidas educativas para os profissionais da UTI, culturas de vigilancia atraves de swab da narina anterior dos pacientes e profissionais, erradicacao do ORSA nasal com mupirocina e precaucao de contato para os pacientes colonizados e infectados. Desenho do estudo: estudo longitudinal com avaliacao pre e pos. Indicadores de infeccao por ORSA e custos foram avaliados no periodo de 01 de junho a 31 outubro de 1996 (periodo controle) e de 01 de novembro de 96 a 31 de outubro de 1997 (periodo intervencao). Apenas os custos diretos da intervencao (culturas de vigilancia de pacientes e profissionais da UTI, tratamento dos pacientes e profissionais colonizados, aulas expositivas) e os custos diretos da internacao dos pacientes (diaria hospitalar, antimicrobianos, nutricao parenteral, procedimentos invasivos, cirurgias, exames bioquimicas, hematologicos, microbiologicos e radiologicos) foram considerados. Foram definidos como parametros de efetividade a incidencia das infeccoes e bacteremias por ORSA, a permanencia n UTI e a letalidade relacionada ao ORSA. Foram incluidos 138 pacientes n periodo controle e 245 pacientes no periodo intervencao. A densidade d incidencia das infeccoes por ORSA caiu de 10,24/1000 para 5,411000 pacientes dia durante a intervencao (p = O,04; Cl95 por cento 1,00-3,55). A densidade de incidencia das bacteremias primarias reduziu de 3,63/1000 para O,9111000 cateter-dia (p O,06; Ci95 por cento O,9-16,0). A permanencia na UTI da populacao estuda foi maior n periodo intervencao em razao do maior numero de pacientes com indicadores d gravidade nesse periodo. A media de permanencia dos pacientes que nao infectaram foi de 6,0 dias, enquanto a permanencia dos pacientes que desenvolveram bacteremia e infeccao por ORSA foram 18,5 e 34,0 dia respectivamente (p < O,001)...(au)

The oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) is one of the main organisms involved in nosocomial infection. ORSA is endemic at Hospital São Paulo. It represents approximately 65% of the isolated S. aureus and accounts for considerable morbidity, mortality and costs. To control the dissemination of S aureus at hospital setting, specific measures should be undertaken. The objective of this study was to assess the costeffectiveness of an intervention to prevent infection caused by ORSA at intensive care unit (ICU) of the anesthesiology sector of the Hospital São Paulo. The intervention consisted of an educational package offered to ICU medical and paramedical staff, together with surveillance cultures of the secretion of the anterior nares of patients and health care workers (HCW) aiming at identifying ORSA-positive individuals. Eradication of those found colonized were attempted through nasal mupirocin and contact precaution observed to colonized or infected patients. Design of the study: before-and-after study. ORSA indicators and costs were evaluated in the period of June 1st to October 31st 1996 (control period) and compared with the period of November 1st to October 31st 1997 (intervention period). Only direct costs incurred by control measures and costs derived from hospital stays (antibiotics, invasive procedures, surgeries, blood tests, cultures, radiologic tests and hospital fees) were considered. The incidence of infections and bacteremias due to ORSA, length of stay and mortality were used as outcome measures of effectiveness. A total of 138 patients were enrolled in the control period and 245 patients in the intervention period. The incidence of ORSA infections decreased from 10.24/1000 to 5.4/1000 patient-days ( = 0.04; CI95% 1.00-3.55). Primary bloodstream ORSA infections also decreased from 3.63/1000 to 0.91/1000 central line-days ( = 0.06; CI95% 0.9-16). There were significantly more severe cases during the intervention period, which translated in a longer length of stay at the ICU. The mean number of days at the ICU for the patients with no infection was 6.5 days, whereas the mean length of stay of patients who developed ORSA bacteremia and ORSA infection were 18.5 days and 34.0 days, respectively (p < 0.001). Mortality attributed to ORSA in the first 14 days of onset of infection was the same in both periods. Nasal colonization by ORSA was seen in 31% of the patients and 53% of these patients presented with colonization at ICU admission. The length of stay was longer for colonized patients (28.7 days) than for patients who were not colonized (7.6 days) (p < 0.001). In regard to nasal colonization by ORSA of the ICU HCW, 12.2% of them were shown to be colonized during the study of which 94.4% were nurses. Intranasal mupirocin bid for 5 days was used in colonized patients and HCW. Eradication rates in 81.25% of the patients and in 88.2% of the HCW ensued after mupirocin. Despite favorable eradication rates following nasal mupirocin, the estimated transmission rate per day of ORSA at the ICU did not change with the intervention due to the high proportion of patients already colonized at the ICU admission. The estimated extra length of stays at the ICU were 16 days and 12.6 days, respectively due ORSA infection and bacteremia. The mean total cost of a patient with ORSA infection was R$ 20,799.19 considerably higher than the cost of a patient without ORSA infection. The estimated extra cost attributable to an ORSA infection was R$ 11,843.52. The additional cost to prevent an ORSA infection in 1,000 patient-days was R$ 917.13. This amount represents the cost-effectiveness ratio of the proposed intervention. The adoption of specific strategies to prevent and control ORSA infection at the ICU setting seems warranted based on the result of this cost-effectiveness analysis.
Assunto Staphylococcus aureus
Análise Custo-Benefício
Infecção Hospitalar
Idioma Português
Financiador Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
Data 2000
Publicado em FREITAS, Marise Reis de. Análise de custo-efetividade das medidas para prevenção e controle de infecções por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à oxacilina em unidade de terapia intensiva. 2000. 113 f. Tese (Doutorado) – Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. São Paulo, 2000.
Editor Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Extensão 112 p.
Direito de acesso Acesso restrito
Tipo Tese de doutorado
URI http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/16635

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